The Notary, Cologne, 1924

August Sander, Part Three

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

Notar, Köln, 1924 (Die Photographische Sammlung / SK Stiftung Kultur – August Sander Archiv)

August Sander (1876–1964) was a German portrait and documentary photographer. He has been described as “the most important German portrait photographer of the early twentieth century”.
In 1911, Sander began with the first series of portraits for his work “People of the 20th Century”. In this series, he aims to show a cross-section of society during the Weimar Republic. August Sander became renowned for this work in which he put together hundreds of portraits of people from different levels of society and occupational groups in a series of portfolios developed in a project spanning decades. The series is divided into seven sections: The Farmer, The Skilled Tradesman, Woman, Classes and Professions, The Artists, The City, and The Last People (homeless persons, veterans, etc.). By 1945, Sander’s archive included over 40,000 images.

THE NOTARY
This portrait of a notary presents an unusual composition within the scope of its portfolio ‘The Judge and the Attorney’, and its larger group ‘Classes and Professions’, in August Sander’s ambitious project ‘People of the 20th Century’. Sander divided his photographic opus of more than 500 images into seven groups, made up of 45 portfolios classified according to the estates, professions and living environments of the German people. While many of the images taken after 1920 are studio portraits or set within the workplace, this outdoor image presents some external narrative detail. Perhaps at his subject’s behest, Sander photographed the notary standing before the stairwell leading to his home, his Doberman Pinscher poised at right angles before him, investing the scene with anticipation and dynamic tension. Attired in a walking coat and hat, and holding a walking stick and the dog’s rolled-up leash, the notary is here pictured far from his professional arena.
Sources/More to Read:
Wikipedia: August Sander
Die Photographische Sammlung/SK Stiftung Kultur
August Sander Foundation

See also my other posts about August Sander’s work
Widower with his sons, Cologne, 1914
Confirmation candidate, 1911
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Confirmation candidate, Cologne, 1911

August Sander, Part Two

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

Confirmation candidate, 1911 (Die Photographische Sammlung / SK Stiftung Kultur – August Sander Archiv)

August Sander (1876–1964) was a German portrait and documentary photographer. He has been described as “the most important German portrait photographer of the early twentieth century”.
In 1911, Sander began with the first series of portraits for his work “People of the 20th Century”. In this series, he aims to show a cross-section of society during the Weimar Republic. August Sander became renowned for this work in which he put together hundreds of portraits of people from different levels of society and occupational groups in a series of portfolios developed in a project spanning decades. The series is divided into seven sections: The Farmer, The Skilled Tradesman, Woman, Classes and Professions, The Artists, The City, and The Last People (homeless persons, veterans, etc.). By 1945, Sander’s archive included over 40,000 images.

“The essence of all photography is the documentary manner” August Sander

CONFIRMATION CANDIDATE
In Christianity, Confirmation is seen as the sealing of the covenant created in Holy Baptism. In some denominations, Confirmation also bestows full membership in a local congregation upon the recipient. In others, such as the Roman Catholic Church, Confirmation “renders the bond with the Church more perfect”, because, while a baptized person is already a member, “reception of the sacrament of Confirmation is necessary for the completion of baptismal grace”.
Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, and many Anglicans view Confirmation as a sacrament. In the East it is conferred immediately after baptism. In the West, this practice is followed when adults are baptized, but in the case of infants not in danger of death it is administered, ordinarily by a bishop, only when the child reaches the age of reason or early adolescence. Among those Catholics who practice teen-aged Confirmation, the practice may be perceived, secondarily, as a “coming of age” rite.
In Protestant churches, the rite tends to be seen rather as a mature statement of faith by an already baptized person. It is also required by most Protestant denominations for membership in the respective church, in particular for traditional Protestant churches (Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, etc.), in which it is recognized as a coming of age ceremony.
Confirmation is not practiced in Baptist, Anabaptist and other groups that teach believer’s baptism. Thus, the sacrament is administered to converts from non-Christian religions, those aforementioned groups, and nontrinitarian churches.
Sources/More to Read:
Wikipedia: August Sander
Wikipedia: Confirmation
Die Photographische Sammlung/SK Stiftung Kultur
August Sander Foundation

See also my other post about August Sander’s work
Widower with his sons, Cologne, 1914

Widower with his sons, Cologne, 1914

AUGUST SANDER, part one

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

Witwer mit seinen söhnen, Köln, 1914 (August Sander – Die Photographische Sammlung/SK Stiftung Kultur – August Sander Archiv)

August Sander (1876–1964) was a German portrait and documentary photographer. He has been described as “the most important German portrait photographer of the early twentieth century”.
Sander was born in Herdorf, the son of a carpenter working in the mining industry. While working at a local mine, Sander first learned about photography by assisting a photographer who was working for a mining company. With financial support from his uncle, he bought photographic equipment and set up his own darkroom.
He spent his military service (1897–99) as a photographer’s assistant and the next years wandering across Germany. In 1901, he started working for a photo studio in Linz, Austria, eventually becoming a partner (1902), and then its sole proprietor (1904). He left Linz at the end of 1909 and set up a new studio in Cologne.
In 1911, Sander began with the first series of portraits for his work “People of the 20th Century”. In the early 1920s, he came in contact with the (Cologne Progressives) a radical group of artists linked to the workers’ movement which, as Wieland Schmied put it, “sought to combine constructivism and objectivity, geometry and object, the general and the particular, avant-garde conviction and political engagement, and which perhaps approximated most to the forward looking of New Objectivity […] “.
Sander’s “Face of our Time” (Antlitz der Zeit) was published in 1929. It contains a selection of 60 portraits from his series People of the 20th Century. In this series, he aims to show a cross-section of society during the Weimar Republic. August Sander became renowned for this work in which he put together hundreds of portraits of people from different levels of society and occupational groups in a series of portfolios developed in a project spanning decades. The series is divided into seven sections: The Farmer, The Skilled Tradesman, Woman, Classes and Professions, The Artists, The City, and The Last People (homeless persons, veterans, etc.). By 1945, Sander’s archive included over 40,000 images.
Comparative photography and direct observation are expressions that aptly describe Sander’s methodological approach. They also express his intention to produce representations that were realistic and free of preconceived ideas. In the juxtaposition of series of photographs especially, he saw the possibility of drawing attention to the physiognomies and postures that were typical of different occupational groups, genders and generations as well as to the individuality of their members.
Under the Nazi regime, his work and personal life were greatly constrained. His son Erich, who was a member of the left wing Socialist Workers’ Party (SAP), was arrested in 1934 and sentenced to 10 years in prison, where he died in 1944, shortly before the end of his sentence. Sander’s book Face of our Time was seized in 1936 and the photographic plates destroyed. Around 1942, during World War II, he left Cologne and moved to a rural area, allowing him to save most of his negatives. His studio was destroyed in a 1944 bombing raid. Thirty thousand of Sander’s roughly forty-thousand negatives survived the war, only to perish in an accidental fire in Cologne in 1946. Sander practically ceased to work as a photographer after World War II. He died in Cologne in 1964.

… we know that people are formed by the light and air, by their inherited traits, and their actions. We can tell from appearance the work someone does or does not do; we can read in his face whether he is happy or troubled…” August Sander

The world’s largest collection of work by August Sander, is located at Die Photographische Sammlung der Kulturstiftung der Sparkasse KölnBonn. Including more than 5,000 original prints and around 11,000 original negatives, the work of August Sander is presented to the public in the form of publications and exhibitions.
In 2002, the August Sander Archive and scholar Susanne Lange published a seven-volume collection comprising some 650 of Sander’s photographs, August Sander: People of the 20th Century.
THE WIDOWER
This portrait of a widower is the only acknowledgement of death in the portfolio entitled The Family, though not within the whole of August Sander’s photographic opus ‘People of the 20th Century’ to which it belongs. Significantly, Sander includes it in the group ‘The Woman’, suggesting here that she is present by her absence. The bereaved stand close together, the father looking in three-quarter profile into the right distance, perhaps contemplating this missing figure. Flanking him, their shaved heads echoing his partially bald one, his two boys look back at the photographer. Emphasising the magnitude of his loss, the baby-faced widower appears only slightly taller than his sons, whose matching outfits and short pants suggest that they are still children. The widower photographed here also appears in the photograph ‘The Pastry Cook’ (1928) from the group ‘The Skilled Tradesman’.
Sources/More to Read:
Wikipedia: August Sander
Die Photographische Sammlung/SK Stiftung Kultur
August Sander Foundation
National Galleries Scotland

Central Park, New York, 1961

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

September 1961: Three women keep cool during a heat wave by moving a park bench into the water in Central Park, New York. (Photo by Keystone Features/Getty Images)

September 1961: Three women keep cool during a heat wave by moving a park bench into the water in Central Park, New York. (Photo by Keystone Features/Getty Images)

Central Park is an urban park in middle-upper Manhattan, within New York City.
Between 1821 and 1855, New York City nearly quadrupled in population. As the city expanded northward up Manhattan, people were drawn to the few existing open spaces, mainly cemeteries, to get away from the noise and chaotic life in the city.
New York City’s need for a great public park was resounded by the famed poet and editor of the Evening Post, William Cullen Bryant, as well as by the first American landscape architect, Andrew Jackson Downing (1815–1852), who predicted and began to publicize the city’s need for a public park in 1844.
A stylish place for open-air driving, similar to Paris’ Bois de Boulogne or London’s Hyde Park, was felt to be needed by many influential New Yorkers and in 1853 the New York legislature settled upon a 700-acre (280 ha) area from 59th to 106th Streets for the creation of the Park, at a cost of more than US$5 million for the land alone.
The Park was established in 1857 on 778 acres (315 ha) of city-owned land and a Central Park Commission held a landscape design contest. In 1858, Frederick Law Olmsted (1822–1903) and Calvert Vaux (1824–1895), a landscape architect and an architect respectively, won the design competition, to improve and expand the park, with a plan they titled the “Greensward Plan”.
Andrew Jackson Downing was friend and mentor to Olmsted, and Vaux was his architect collaborator. After Downing died in July 1852, Olmsted and Vaux entered the Central Park design competition together. Vaux had invited the less experienced Olmsted to participate in the design competition with him, having been impressed with Olmsted’s theories and political contacts. The design of Central Park embodies Olmsted’s social consciousness and commitment to egalitarian ideals. Influenced by Downing and his own observations regarding social class in England, China, and the American South, Olmsted believed that the common green space must always be equally accessible to all citizens, and was to be defended against private encroachment. This principle is now fundamental to the idea of a “public park”, but was not assumed as necessary then. Olmsted’s tenure as park commissioner in New York was a long struggle to preserve that idea.
Construction began in 1858 and the park’s first area was opened to the public in the winter of the same year. Construction continued during the American Civil War farther north, and was expanded to its current size of 843 acres (341 ha) in 1873.
Central Park was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1962.
Today, the park is maintained by the Central Park Conservancy, a private, not-for-profit organization that manages the park under a contract with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.
While planting and land form in much of the park appear natural, it is in fact almost entirely landscaped. The park contains several natural-looking lakes and ponds that have been created artificially, extensive walking tracks, bridle paths, two ice-skating rinks (one of which is a swimming pool in July and August), the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, a wildlife sanctuary, a large area of natural woods, a 106-acre (43 ha) billion-gallon reservoir with an encircling running track, and an outdoor amphitheater, the Delacorte Theater, which hosts the “Shakespeare in the Park” summer festivals. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre, and the historic Carousel. In addition there are seven major lawns, the “meadows”, and many minor grassy areas; some of them are used for informal or team sports and some set aside as quiet areas; there are a number of enclosed playgrounds for children. The 6 miles (9.7 km) of drives within the park are used by joggers, cyclists, skateboarders, and inline skaters, especially when automobile traffic is prohibited, on weekends and in the evenings after 7:00 pm. The park has its own NYPD precinct, the Central Park Precinct, which employs both regular police and auxiliary officers. In 2005, safety measures held the number of crimes in the park to fewer than one hundred per year (down from approximately 1,000 in the early 1980s).
Central Park’s size and cultural position, has served as a model for many urban parks. The park, which receives approximately 35 million visitors annually, is the most visited urban park in the United States. It is also one of the most filmed locations in the world.
Advise and Consent is a 1959 political novel by Allen Drury (1918–1998) that explores the United States Senate confirmation of controversial Secretary of State nominee Robert Leffingwell, who is a former member of the Communist Party. The novel spent 102 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list, won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1960 and was adapted into a successful 1962 film starring Henry Fonda.
Sources/More to Read:
Wikipedia: Central Park
Wikipedia: Andrew Jackson Downing
Wikipedia: Frederick Law Olmsted
Wikipedia: Calvert Vaux
Central Park Conservancy
Wikipedia: Advise and Consent
Wikipedia: Allen Drury

Palm Beach, Florida, 1906

Restoration and colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

Restoration and colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

On the beach, Palm Beach, Florida, 1906 (Detroit Publishing Co.- Library of Congress)

On the beach, Palm Beach, Florida, 1906 (Detroit Publishing Co.- Library of Congress)

The Town of Palm Beach is an incorporated town in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States. The Intracoastal Waterway separates it from the neighboring cities of West Palm Beach and Lake Worth. In 2000, Palm Beach had a year-round population of 10,468, with an estimated seasonal population of 30,000.
Palm Beach was established as a resort by Henry Morrison Flagler, who made the Atlantic coast barrier island accessible via his Florida East Coast Railway.
Henry Morrison Flagler (1830 – 1913) was an American industrialist and a founder of Standard Oil. He was also a key figure in the development of the Atlantic coast of Florida. He is known as the father of both Miami and Palm Beach, Florida.
Flagler visited Florida in 1883, and, annoyed at the inadequate transportation and hotel facilities, he undertook to improve them. This project sparked Flagler’s interest in creating a new “American Riviera.”
He bought up and consolidated several local railroads and organized the Florida East Coast Railway, which he extended from Daytona through Palm Beach (1894) to Miami (1896) and thence 150 mi (241 km) to Key West (1912). Along the way, Flagler built additional hotels, establishing Florida’s east coast cities as tourist destinations.
To accommodate the workers who built the hotels, Flagler established a community of tents and shacks called “the Styx” on the island. He generally treated the workers, many of them African-Americans, well, but he didn’t want them living near him. So he laid out a city across the lake and built homes, churches and government buildings, creating the city of West Palm Beach.
In 1893, Flagler bought land on a little known barrier island called Palm Beach. He built the Royal Poinciana, which was the largest resort hotel in the world. It had six floors and 540 rooms. It and a smaller hotel nearby called The Breakers, became gathering places for wealth and fashion during “the season”, from December to April. After Flagler built a railroad bridge onto the island, wealthy people travelled down in private railcars for parties, golf, tennis, boating, bathing and fishing.
He encouraged people to farm Florida’s land by giving them a break on rail rates to transport their produce. Orange, grapefruit and lemon groves were soon dotting the state. He also established many of the state’s newspapers. Over thirty years, Flagler had invested about €45 million in railroad, home and hotel construction.
In May of 1913, Flagler died in Palm Beach at 83 years of age. At 3pm on the day of the funeral, every engine on the Florida East Coast Railway stopped wherever it was for ten minutes as a tribute to Flagler. It was reported that people along the railway line waited all night for the passing of the funeral train as it travelled from Palm Beach to St. Augustine.
Sources/More to Read:
Wikipedia: Palm Beach, Florida
Wikipedia: Henry Flagler
Encyclopedia.com: Henry Morrison Flagler
Palm Beach County History Online: Frangler Era
Library of Congress
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Mr. Jose D’Angelo’s family, Peru, ca. 1920’s

Colorized by Manos Athanasiadis

Colorized by Manos Athanasiadis

Mr. Jose D'Angelo's family (Jose D'Angelo) ca. 1920's

Mr. Jose D’Angelo’s family (Jose D’Angelo) ca. 1920’s

The following article: Exhibition honors Peruvian 3D photography pioneer Jose D’Angelo is from EFE Agencia’s site (March 4, 2015)

After almost a century of gathering dust, the work of a Peruvian amateur photographer has come to light in an unprecedented exhibition titled “Estereografias. El mundo en 3D del senor Jose D’Angelo” (Stereograms: The 3D World of Mr. Jose D’Angelo. The exhibition, which runs until May 17 (2015) at the Peruvian Catholic University Cultural Center in Lima, features 20 of the more than 300 three-dimensional images previously seen only by D’Angelo’s relatives, said curator Jokin Aspuru.

Jose D'Angelo in 1916

Jose D’Angelo in 1916

Jose D’Angelo Gutierrez (1873 – 1954) was born to Italian immigrant parents, in Ascope a town in Northern Peru. He was a bank manager of the former Caja de Depósitos, an entity that in time became the Banco de la Nacion. His work was to travel across Peru to open branches throughout the country. In his spare time, he took pictures of places he visited, creating a “serious and important” archive documenting family and social customs of the period, Aspuru said.
To create 3D images, D’Angelo learned the stereoscopy technique that became “the first mass visual phenomenon,” allowing people to view three-dimensional images through a stereoscope. D’Angelo employed a binocular camera that takes simultaneous photographs from slightly displaced angles. Once the images are placed in the stereoscope, the brain works to match the distance between them, creating the illusion of three dimensions.
D’Angelo was an organized, rigorous and meticulous photographer who classified all his material according to the subject of his photographs. Aspuru, found all of the photographer’s work stored in a small, four-drawer chest. Inside were more than 300 stereoscopic plates with pictures taken between 1915 and 1930, neatly classified with tags marking sections, such as “Family,” “Lima” and “Miscellaneous.”
“D’Angelo was always an amateur photographer, but he took photography very seriously,” Aspuru said. “He knew what he was doing.”
Sources/More to Read:
EFE Agencia: Exhibition honors Peruvian 3D photography pioneer Jose D’Angelo
Centro cultural PUCP: Estereografias, el mundo en 3D del Sr. D’Angelo
Wikipedia: Stereoscopy
Peru 21: Estereografias
Foro Peruano de las Artes: Jose D’Angelo Gutierrez

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