‘Yva Richard’ fetishwear company, Paris, ca. 1935

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

A leather dominatrix outfit from the Yva Richard catalog (c. 1935)

Nativa Richard modeling as a dominatrix (c. 1935)

Tightlaced Nativa Richard sitting on a barstool wearing only a corset and overknee boots (c. 1935)

Yva Richard was a French fetishwear company of the early 20th century. It was formed in Paris, by L. Richard and his wife Nativa, who was a seamstress.
They began in 1914 selling costumes, women’s hats, shoes, and high-class lingerie.
In 1923, their range of products started to include in-house produced photography, ranging from erotic lingerie poses to increasingly risque and imaginative fetish outfits. Nativa, displaying a wide streak of exhibitionism, was the principal model for over a decade. She sometimes used the names Helios and Miss Milado. Their photographs are often marked with a “Y.R.” in the corner and may have been taken by her husband.
They also sold erotic photos of bondage, whipping and spanking from well-known photographers such as H. Manuel and Ostra Studio (a division of Biederer Studio). Their main sales outlet was via a mail-order catalog, La Lingerie Moderne (photographed by Ostra Studio), and magazine advertisements in La Vie Parisienne, Le Sourire, and most likely London Life.
By the 1930s their catalog expanded, adding fetishistic accessories and S&M accouterments such as leather corsets, high-heeled boots, handcuffs, shackles, masks, dog collars with leashes, and bizarre dominatrix ensembles made of leather, rubber, and even metal.
However, the events of World War II brought an end to Yva Richard, along with most other purveyors of erotic art, products, and apparel throughout Europe. The company was forced to close its doors forever in 1943 during the Nazi occupation of France.
Yva Richard was one of a handful of companies that provided groundbreaking fetish fashions and photographs in the 1930s and ’40s. They had only one major rival, Diana Slip—a fetish wear company run by Leon Vidal, also based in Paris. Vidal’s collection while very much marketed to purveyors of kink had a slightly more sophisticated air and was not as overtly deviant as Yva Richard’s designs. In America, the only significant dealer in fetish paraphernalia and photography (much of it imported from France) at that time was Charles Guyette in New York.
Perhaps the most important result of the Yva Richard catalog was the influence it would have on the next generation of artists such as John Willie (who purchased items from Richard and Diana Slip in the ’30s) and photographers like Irving Klaw. In the 1950s, Klaw’s models, including Bettie Page, can be seen wearing a metal cone-bra and chastity belt outfit that is an updated version of the one modelled by Nativa Richard.
A book about the company has been published called: “Yva Richard, L’age d’or du fetichisme” by Alexandre Dupouy.

Fetishism tends to focus on materials. As far as underwear is concerned, recurring materials are silk and nylon, but after these two fabrics became outdated, designers began to use leather, metal and above all latex. Leather and metal have been used for a long time, as shown in the photographs of Yva Richard but it is latex that has considerable appeal today. In the 1920’s, Yva Richard appeared in a whole series of photographs in which she posed as a dominatrix. She usually modelled a corset similar to those of the second half of the 19th century, or all-in-ones in silky, smooth and shiny materials or leather. Leather was the fetishist’s material of choice for a long time.

Clothing fetishism or garment fetishism is a sexual fetish that revolves around a fixation upon a particular article or type of clothing, a collection of garments that appear as part of a fashion or uniform, or a person dressed in such a garment.
Clothing that limits the wearer’s movement is commonly used for this property, particularly among bondage enthusiasts and it has common appearance in bondage-related fetish fashion. Such restrictive fashion, among others, includes corsets, collars, and hobble skirts. The training corset and bondage corset has also become a staple in fetish wear, particularly among professional dominants. A submissive or slave may also be forced to wear a tightly laced corset as a form of punishment or simply restriction. And the masochistic practice known as tightlacing creates a particular type of pleasure for the wearer. It is done to achieve cosmetic modifications to the figure and posture or to experience the sensation of bodily restriction. In the 1980s, pop music performers such as Madonna and Cyndi Lauper reintroduced and popularized the corset as a daring outerwear garment. This influence continues to the present day in both fetish and mainstream fashion.

Editions Astarte: “Yva Richard, L’age d’or du fetichisme” by Alexandre Dupouy

Leather fetishism is the name popularly used to describe a sexual attraction to people wearing leather and or to the garments themselves. The smell and the sound of leather is often an erotic stimulus for people with a leather fetish.
BDSM – A variety of erotic practices involving dominance and submission, roleplaying, restraint, and other interpersonal dynamics. Given the wide range of practices, some of which may be engaged in by people who do not consider themselves as practicing BDSM, inclusion in the BDSM community or subculture is usually dependent on self-identification and shared experience. Interest in BDSM can range from one-time experimentation to a lifestyle. The term “BDSM” is interpreted as a combination of the abbreviations B/D (Bondage and Discipline), D/s (Dominance and submission), and S/M (Sadism and Masochism).
A dominatrix is a woman who takes the dominant role in BDSM activities. A dominatrix might be of any sexual orientation, but her orientation does not necessarily limit the genders of her submissive partners. The role of a dominatrix may not even involve physical pain toward the submissive; her domination can be verbal, involving humiliating tasks, or servitude.
Sources / More to Read:
Spanking Art: Yva Richard
Wikipedia: Yva Richard
Editions Astarte: “Yva Richard, L’age d’or du fetichisme” by Alexandre Dupouy
Dangerous Minds: Fierce vintage fetish wear from the 1920s and 1930s
Wikipedia: Sexual fetishism
Wikipedia: Clothing fetishism
Wikipedia: Outline of BDSM
Wikipedia: Dominatrix

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Portrait d’une prostituée, Paris, ca. 1930

Portrait of a prostitute, Paris, ca. 1930

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

“Mauvaises filles”: Portrait of a prostitute (photo by Monsieur X) Paris, ca. 1930

In the early 20th century, Paris was a hotspot for prostitution. In those days, men didn’t have very exciting sex lives with their wives. Also, if you were a man in the middle class, you would get married by 35. There would always be some misbehaving uncle to show you the joys of a brothel once you hit puberty.
Alexandre Dupouy is a sex archaeologist. The French collector has spent his entire life collecting what he defines as “erotic and pornographic junk.” His shop, the Tears of Eros—now open only by appointment—has been selling pictures, paintings, and sex objects for almost half a century. It’s a sort of small museum that traces the history of sex in France.
In 1975, he received a call from a bookseller friend who said that he had an old gentleman with “something special to show him.” What he had was a luxury car with a trunk full of black-and-white photographs of naked and smiling prostitutes from the 1930s. He explained that he took most of the pictures in a brothel on the Rue Pigalle. Given that he could feel his days were numbered, the old man agreed to part with the pictures as long as he could remain anonymous. That man became known as “Monsieur X.”
On the back of the photos Monsieur X wrote the name of each girl: Mado, Suzette, Gypsi, Mimi, Nono, Pepe, etc. Monsieur X must have been close, friendly, and generous with the ladies. What is amazing is that the girls seem very relaxed in the pictures—they are actually having fun. There are even outdoor pictures taken on the banks of the Marne. He also directed two ten-minute short films, shot both outdoors and indoors. These two pieces really revealed his biggest fantasy: putting two girls together. One played a modest girl, while the other tried to be a stripper.
There are a lot of similarities to Gustave Courbet’s The Origin of the World. He also liked pretty exhibitionists. Or E. J. Bellocq—the New Orleans photographer who was also a regular customer of a local brothel, eventually making friends with the girls so that he could take any picture he wanted.
Nearly four decades later, Dupouy has decided to reprint some of this impressive collection as a book called Mauvaises filles (Bad Girls). The book is co-authored by both Dupouy and Monsieur X and published by La manufacture des livres, in 2014.
(Follow the link below to read the full interview of Alexandre Dupouy, in vice.com)
Sources / More to read:
Vice : Charming Pornographic Photographs of French Prostitutes from the 1930s
La manufacture des livres: Mauvaises filles
Amazon.co.uk: Mauvaises filles, Portraits de prostituées 1925-1935

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Anna May Wong, by George Hurrell, 1938

Colorization & Restoration by Manos Athanasiadis

Colorization & Restoration by Manos Athanasiadis

Anna May Wong (photo: George Hurell) 1938

Anna May Wong (photo: George Hurell) 1938

Anna May Wong (born Wong Liu Tsong, 1905–1961) was an American actress. She is considered to be the first Chinese American movie star, and also the first Asian American actress to gain international recognition. Her long and varied career spanned silent film, sound film, television, stage and radio.
Born in Los Angeles to second-generation Chinese-American parents, Wong became infatuated with the movies and began acting in films at an early age. During the silent film era, she acted in The Toll of the Sea (1922), one of the first movies made in color. Her big breakthrough came when Douglas Fairbanks cast her in a supporting role as a treacherous Mongol slave in The Thief of Bagdad (1924). The $2-million blockbuster production made her known to critics and the movie-going public. For better or worse, a star, albeit of the stereotypical “Dragon Lady” type, was born.
Despite her waxing fame, she was limited to supporting roles, as Caucasian actresses, continued to be cast as Asian women in lead roles. She was unable to attract lead parts despite her beauty and proven acting talent, even in films featuring Asian women. The characters she played typically were duplicitous or murderous vamps that often reaped the wages of their sin by being raped. Frustrated by the stereotypical supporting roles she reluctantly played in Hollywood, Wong left for Europe in the late 1920s, where she starred in several notable plays and films. European directors appreciated Wong’s unique talents and beauty, and they used her in ways that stereotype-minded Hollywood, hemmed in by American prejudice, would not or could not. Moving to Germany to appear in German films, she became acquainted with German film personalities, including Marlene Dietrich and Leni Riefenstahl. She learned German and French and began to develop a continental European attitude and outlook. Anna May Wong was featured in magazines all over the world, she became a media superstar, and her coiffure and complexion were copied, while “coolie coats” became the rage. The 170-cm-tall beauty was known as the world’s best-dressed woman and widely considered to have the loveliest hands in the cinema.
She spent the first half of the 1930s traveling between the United States and Europe for film and stage work. Her best role in Hollywood in the early 1930s was in support of Marlene Dietrich in Oscar-winning classic Shanghai Express (1932). However, Hollywood in the 1930s was as racist as it had been in the Roaring Twenties, and MGM refused to cast her in its 1932 production of The Son-Daughter (1932), for which she did a screen-test, as she was “too Chinese to play a Chinese.”
In 1935 Wong was dealt the most severe disappointment of her career, when MGM refused to consider her for the leading role of the Chinese character O-Lan in the film The Good Earth, choosing instead the German actress Luise Rainer to play the leading role. Albert Lewin, the Thalberg assistant who was casting the film, vetoed Wong and other ethnic Chinese because their looks didn’t fit his conception of what Chinese people should look like. Ironically, the year “The Good Earth” came out, Wong appeared on the cover of Look Magazine’s second issue, which labeled her “The World’s Most Beautiful Chinese Girl.” Luise Rainer would win the Best Actress Oscar for her performance of O-Lan in Chinese drag.
Wong spent the next year touring China, visiting her family’s ancestral village and studying Chinese culture. Though Wong was one of Hollywood’s more memorable victims of racism in being denied leading roles in A-list pictures because the racist mores of the times prevented an Asian woman from kissing a Caucasian actor, she was considered socially suspect by her own people. The roles she was forced to accept in order to have an acting career, as well as her status as a single woman disgusted many Chinese in America and in her ancestral homeland, where actresses were equated with prostitutes and where women were still played by men in classical opera. On her trip, Anna May was welcomed by the country’s cultural elite in cosmopolitan Beijing and Shanghai, but she had to abandon a trip to her parents’ ancestral village when her progress was blocked by a crowd of protesters.
Wong’s personal relationships typically were with older Caucasian men, but California law forbade marriage between Asians and Caucasians until 1948. One of her white lovers offered to marry her in Mexico, but the couple’s intentions became known and he backed off when his Hollywood career was jeopardized. Wong mused about marrying a Chinese man at times, but the Chinese culture held actresses to be on a par with prostitutes, which made her suspect marriage material. She was afraid that the mores of her culture likely meant that marrying a Chinese would force her to quit her career and be an obedient wife.
Anna May Wong loved reading, and her favorite subjects spanned a wide range, everything from Asian history and Tzu Lao to William Shakespeare. She never married but occupied her time with golf, horses, and skiing. Wong smoked, drank too much, and suffered from depression.
In the late 1930s, she starred in several B movies for Paramount Pictures, portraying Chinese Americans in a positive light. She paid less attention to her film career during World War II, when she devoted her time and money to helping the Chinese cause against Japan. Wong returned to the public eye in the 1950s in several television appearances. In 1951, she made history with her TV show The Gallery of Madame Liu-Tsong, the first ever U.S. television show starring an Asian American series lead.
She had been planning to return to film in Flower Drum Song when she died of a massive heart attack on February 3, 1961, in Santa Monica, CA, after a long struggle against Laennec’s cirrhosis, a disease of the liver. She was 56 years old.
For decades after her death, Wong was remembered principally for the stereotypical “Dragon Lady” and demure “Butterfly” roles that she was often given. Her life and career were re-evaluated in the years around the centennial of her birth, in three major literary works and film retrospectives.
George Edward Hurrell (1904–1992) was a photographer who contributed to the image of glamour presented by Hollywood during the 1930s and 1940s.
Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Hurrell originally studied as a painter with no particular interest in photography. He first began to use photography only as a medium for recording his paintings. After moving to Laguna Beach, California from Chicago, Illinois in 1925 he met many other painters who had connections. One of those connections was Edward Steichen who encouraged him to pursue photography after seeing some of his works. Hurrell eventually opened a photographic studio in Los Angeles.
In the late 1920s, Hurrell was introduced to the actor Ramon Novarro and agreed to take a series of photographs of him. Novarro was impressed with the results and showed them to the actress Norma Shearer, who was attempting to mould her wholesome image into something more glamorous and sophisticated in an attempt to land the title role in the movie The Divorcee. She asked Hurrell to photograph her in poses more provocative than her fans had seen before. After she showed these photographs to her husband, MGM production chief Irving Thalberg, Thalberg was so impressed that he signed Hurrell to a contract with MGM Studios, making him head of the portrait photography department. But in 1932, Hurrell left MGM after differences with their publicity head, and from then on until 1938 ran his own studio. Throughout the decade, Hurrell photographed every star contracted to MGM, and his striking black-and-white images were used extensively in the marketing of these stars.
In the early 1940s Hurrell moved to Warner Brothers Studios and later in the decade, he moved to Columbia Pictures where his photographs were used to help the studio build the career of Rita Hayworth.
He left Hollywood briefly to make training films for the First Motion Picture Unit of the United States Army Air Forces. When he returned to Hollywood in the mid-1950s his old style of glamour had fallen from favour. Where he had worked hard to create an idealised image of his subjects, the new style of Hollywood glamour was more earthy and gritty, and for the first time in his career Hurrell’s style was not in demand. He moved to New York and worked for the advertising industry where glamour was still valued. He continued his work for fashion magazines and photographed for print advertisements for several years before returning to Hollywood in the 1960s.
Hurrell died from complications from bladder cancer shortly after completing a TBS documentary about his life. He died on May 17, 1992.
Since his death, his vintage works have continued to appreciate in value and examples of his artistic output can be found in the permanent collections of numerous museums around the world.
Sources/More to Read:
Wikipedia: Anna May Wong
Wikipedia: George Hurrell
George Hurrell Official Site
Scandalous Women: Anna May Wong
IMDb: Anna May Wong
BuzzFeed: Anne Helen Petersen’s “Scandals of Classic Hollywood: Sex, Deviance, and Drama from the Golden Age of American Cinema” (bonus chapter)

Portrait d’une jeune fille dans une cour, Tunis, ca. 1910

Portrait of a young girl in a courtyard, Tunis, circa 1910

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

Le portrait d'une jeune fille dans une cour, (Lehnert et Landrock) circa 1910

Le portrait d’une jeune fille dans une cour, (Lehnert et Landrock) circa 1910

Lehnert & Landrock is the name of a photographic duo active in North Africa in the early 20th century, consisting of: Rudolf Franz Lehnert & Ernst Heinrich Landrock.
Lehnert (1878-1948) was born in Bohemia, then a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Landrock (1878–1966) in Reinsdorf, Saxony.
In 1903 a walking tour across Europe led Lehnert to Palermo and from there to Tunisia. Overwhelmed by the beauty of the country he began what would become a lifelong career as a photographer. On his return to Europe Lehnert met Landrock in Switzerland and showed him his photographs. The two men returned to Tunis together where in 1904 they started their photographic atelier and business, publishing their works as: by “Lehnert & Landrock”.
Although the photographs they produced were signed with both their names, it was Lehnert who was the photographer and Landrock the businessman who made them possible. Landrock ran the studio in Tunis, managed the laboratory, organized Lehnert’s caravans into the desert, and marketed their products.
“People will still talk about my photographs after 200 years!” Lehnert used to say to his friend, when impatiently accuses him for his two months long desert safari in Tunisia. The photographs, which published in Leipzig, Germany, bring the expected success and reached worldwide fame.
There are several distinguishing features in Lehnert’s photography. Desert scenes are simple, but formally composed reflecting his early training as a painter and art student. Lone figures dwarfed by sand dunes forming one of his favourite motifs, the power of the desert over man.
There is also a large body of female nude work and of eroticized male adolescent images. These nude images often say more about the fantasies and culture of the photographers than about the portrayed cultures. From the 1860s onwards photographs of people with different cultural values and sexual morality became popular for artistic and erotic reasons.
In 1914 Lehnert starts another caravan trip; he rents camels to carry his heavy photographic equipment, dresses himself like the Bedouins, lives according the strong rules of the desert. When he returns to Tunis, he is shocked. In the meantime, the outbreak of the First World War took place, their shop was confiscated and Landrock, according to the German-French agreement, is interned to Engelberg in Switzerland. Lehnert, because of his Austrian citizenship accused of espionage and jailed in Algeria and Corsica. Thanks to the efforts of Landrock, later he interned in Davos, Switzerland until his release.
After the war, Lehnert and Landrock married Jenny Schmitt and Emilie Singer-Lambelet, respectively.
In 1919, Lehnert changed his citizenship to Czech, as Bohemia became part of Czechoslovakia (allied with France) and he get all his photographs back.

Lehnert & Landrock bookshop in 44 Sherif St. Downtown, Cairo, Egypt

Lehnert & Landrock bookshop in 44 Sherif St. Downtown, Cairo, Egypt

In 1924, Lehnert and Landrock re-established their studio in Cairo.
In 1930, Lehnert moved with his family to Tunisia and opened a photo studio in Tunis. Landrock continued in Cairo and in close partnership with his son-in-law Kurt Lambelet, overseeing the transformation of “Lehnert and Landrock” into a centre for fine art prints.
In 1938, Landrock sells his share to his stepson and returns to Germany. The company then firmed under the name Lehnert & Landrock – K. Lambelet.
In 1939 Lehnert retired to Carthage and when his wife died in 1944, he settled with his daughter and son-in-law at the Tunisian oasis of Gafsa, where he died in 1948.
Landrock never returned to Egypt and in 1966 he died in Switzerland.
The family of Kurt Lambelet expanded the business in Cairo, focusing more on books and art prints. Kurt Lambelet passed away in 1997 at age 92. His son Edouard Lambelet is now owner of the Lehnert & Landrock Bookshop and Art Gallery in Cairo.
There have been numerous articles and monographs about Lehnert & Landrock work and increasingly are becoming recognized as one of the best studios of its time.
Sources/More to Read:
Wikipedia: Rudolf Franz Lehnert
Wikipedia: Rudolf Franz Lehnert (en français)
Wikipedia: Ernst Heinrich Landrock
Luxor – West bank: The history of the two “Ls”
Deutsche Welle: The dangerous job of selling books in Cairo
Boudoir-Cards.de: Oriental (Erotic) Postcards
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Jeanne Juilla, Miss Europe, ca. 1930’s

Jeanne Juilla on french postcard, ca. 1930's

Colorization by Manos Athanasiadis

French postcard of Jeanne Juilla, ca. 1930's

French postcard of Jeanne Juilla, ca. 1930’s

A French postcard is a small, postcard-sized photograph of a nude or semi-nude woman. Such erotic cards were produced in great volume, primarily in France, in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Because nudity was seen so far only in classic paintings, people were excited by the new technique of photography, which made it possible to collect erotic images otherwise not accessible apart from expensive artworks. New industrial reproduction techniques allowed publishers of postcards to sell large amounts of various series. The cards were sold as postcards, but the primary purpose was not for sending by mail, as they would have been banned from delivery. Due to the contemporary moral and law, these cards were usually sold and traded discretely in stores or by street dealers.
Most of the photographers kept their work anonymous by using acronymic signatures. They didn’t want to risk their public reputation, or to get in troubles with the law. Nevertheless photographers in Paris like Jean Agélou, Louis Amedée Mante or Julian Mandel produced numerous series of semi-nude and nude photographs of a large variety of anonymous models. Modelling for nude photography was kept secretly too. This is why there are only a very few known names of artists from theatre or music halls.
Jeanne Juilla, born in 1910 at Villeneuve-sur-Lot (Lot-et-Garonne), France, was a model and actress. She elected Miss Garonne in 1930 and Miss France the next year. On February 5, 1931, in Paris, she became the first French Miss Europe, among the representatives of 16 European countries.
Being a contestant for Miss Europe was tough. In the countries that already had pageants, the girls began in small contests and worked their way up, from local cantons to provinces and finally the capital. The contestants had to possess those genuine, innocent yet sensual charms. Some entrants came from privileged backgrounds, where they had been taught the etiquette of table manners and the art of small talk from an early age, but the judges could also be touched by a young lady’s journey from small town baker’s daughter to culture symbol to the metropolis. Such a girl had led a wholesome, positive life, a role model the world.

“My greatest ambition is to make my mother happy. I will not go on the stage or screen. Just a few weeks ago I saw a large city for the first time—Paris!” Jeanne Juilla, Miss Europe 1931: Time Magazine, Feb. 16, 1931

It was a standard for the winners of such beauty-pageants to have several types of photo shoots, and some were in nude. Jeanne Juilla, was above average in height with hazel eyes of bluish/greenish/grey, and dark hair. She worked as a dress maker with her mother in a small business in Villeneuve-Sur-Lot, where she spent the greater part of her life, according to “The Straits Times, 18 April 1931”.
Tracing what happened to the various contestants after they won turns up precious little. A few moved on to acting or modelling careers, usually short lived and unspectacular. For most the beauty pageant was their one brief brush with fame.
Jeanne Juilla’s filmography: His best client (1932), The Prison of St. Chlothaire (1934), A woman chipée (1934), Samson (1936).
Sources / More to read:
Wikipedia: French postcard
Wikipedia: Jeanne Juilla
Boudoir-Cards: French (Erotic) Postcards
Boudoir-Cards: Jeanne Juilla
One Man’s Treasure: Pageants of Pulchritude

Ni Pollok, ca. 1950

Colorization: Manos Athanasiadis

Colorization: Manos Athanasiadis

Ni Pollok, wife & model of painter Adrien Le Mayeur (photo: Charles Breijer) 1947-1953

Ni Pollok, wife & model of painter Adrien Le Mayeur (photo: Charles Breijer) 1947-1953

Adrien-Jean Le Mayeur (1880 – 1958) was a Belgian painter from Brussels who lived the last part of his life in Bali. Adrien came to Bali in 1932. He was fascinated by Balinese culture, the people’s traditional way of life, the temple rituals and local dances. He was also impressed by the light, color and beauty of the surroundings in the then still quite unspoilt island.
Le Mayeur rented a house in banjar Kelandis, Denpasar, where he got acquainted with 15-year-old legong dancer, Ni Nyoman Pollok, known by her nickname Ni Pollok. A number of Le Mayeur’s Bali works using Ni Pollok as model were exhibited in Singapore for the first time in 1933, which turned to be a very successful exhibition and made him more widely known. Returning from Singapore, Le Mayeur bought a piece of land at Sanur beach and built a house, which was also his studio. After three years working together, in 1935, Le Mayeur and Pollok got married. Le Mayeur kept on painting with his wife as his model during their married life.
During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II Le Mayeur was put under house arrest by the Japanese authorities. He continued painting, however, often painting on rice sack cloth and other surfaces he could find. After the war Le Mayeur’s reputation grew at steady pace.
Years after the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, the Indonesian Minister for Education and Culture visited Le Mayeur and Ni Pollok at their house in 1956. He was greatly impressed with the painter’s work and therefore suggested to the couple that their house and all its contents should be preserved as a museum. Le Mayeur agreed to the idea and since then he worked harder to add more collections to the house and to increase the quality of his works as well. On 28 August 1957 a Deed of Conveyance was signed, stating that Le Mayeur had given all his possessions including the land, his house with all its contents to Ni Pollok as a gift. And at the same moment, Ni Pollok then conveyed what she had inherited from her husband to the Government of Indonesia to be used as a museum.
In 1958 Le Mayeur suffered from a severe ear cancer, and accompanied by Ni Pollok he returned to Belgium to have a medical treatment. After two months in Belgium, the 78-year old painter died and was buried in Ixelles, Brussels. Ni Pollok then returned home to take care of her house which had become the Le Mayeur Museum. She stayed there until her death on 18 July 1985 at the age of 68. Le Mayeur and Ni Pollok’s home is kept in its original condition and is still a museum.

The ear plugs, worn by Ni Pollok in this photo, were made of copper and the space inside was used to store tobacco for betel-chewing. The betel (Piper betle) is the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava. It is valued both as a mild stimulant and for its medicinal properties. Betel leaf is mostly consumed in Asia, as betel quid or in paan, with or without tobacco, in an addictive psycho-stimulating and euphoria-inducing formulation with adverse health effects.
Wikipedia
Nederlands Fotomusem

Detail from a Le Mayeur's painting

Detail from a Le Mayeur’s painting

Ο Αντριέν-Ζαν Λε Μαγέρ (1880 – 1958) ήταν ένας Βέλγος ζωγράφος που έγινε γνωστός για τους πίνακες που ζωγράφισε στην τελευταία περίοδο της ζωής του, στο Μπαλί. Το 1932, επισκέφτηκε το νησί της Ινδονησίας και εντυπωσιάστηκε από την ντόπια κουλτούρα, τον τρόπο ζωής των ανθρώπων, και τη φυσική ομορφιά του τόπου.
Εκεί γνώρισε τη 15χρονη χορεύτρια τοπικών χορών Νι Πόλλοκ, που πόζαρε για τους πίνακες του. Τον επόμενο χρόνο, μετά από μια επιτυχημένη έκθεση στη Σιγκαπούρη, αποφάσισε να εγκατασταθεί μόνιμα στο Μπαλί. Αγόρασε μια έκταση στα νότια του Μπαλί και έφτιαξε ένα σπίτι που έγινε το στούντιο του. Το 1935 παντρεύτηκε την Νι Πόλλοκ που έγινε το μόνιμο μοντέλο στα έργα του.
Οι μετά-ιμπρεσιονιστικοί πίνακες του Λε Μαγέρ, επηρεασμένοι από το νέο περιβάλλον του, τον έκαναν διάσημο τα επόμενα χρόνια.
Το 1958, προσβλήθηκε από καρκίνο στο αυτί, και αναγκάστηκε να πάει στις Βρυξέλλες για θεραπεία. Πέθανε την ίδια χρονιά σε ηλικία 78 χρονών. Μετά το θάνατο και της γυναίκας του, το 1985, το σπίτι τους μεταβιβάστηκε στο κράτος και έγινε μουσείο.

Όπως φαίνεται στη φωτογραφία της Νι Πόλλοκ, μέρος της παράδοσης στο Μπαλί ήταν να έχουν οι γυναίκες ακάλυπτο το πάνω μέρος του σώματος τους, όπως και το ear plug που είναι περασμένο στο λοβό του αυτιού της. Αυτό χρησίμευε και ως δοχείο ενός παρασκευάσματος, δημοφιλούς στην Ν.Α Ασία, από φύλλα betel και ταμπάκο. Το μάσημα του betel quid έχει ευφορικές και διεγερτικές ιδιότητες αλλά δυσμενείς επιπτώσεις στην υγεία.

Doris Fisher on a smoke break, 1946

Color by Manos Athanasiadis

Color by Manos Athanasiadis

Model Doris Fischer takes a smoke break

Model Doris Fischer takes a smoke break (Photo by Loomis Dean//Time Life Pictures)

Model Doris Fisher on a smoke break during classes at Oxbow Summer School of Painting in Saugatuck, Michigan, USA. Photo by Loomis Dean for Life Magazine.
Oxbow Summer School of Painting
Article: Miss Moss
Wikipedia: Loomis Dean

Αφού πόζαρε για μισή ώρα, η Ντόρις Φίσσερ αποφάσισε να κάνει ένα μικρό διάλειμμα για τσιγάρο, στη σκιά των δέντρων του Οξμπόου. Ο Λούμις Ντίν, πήρε την κάμερα του και έβγαλε ακόμα μια φωτογραφία. Ετοίμαζε ένα ρεπορτάζ για την καλοκαιρινή σχολή ζωγραφικής του Ινστιτούτου Τεχνών του Σικάγο. Θα τυπωνόταν σε κάποιο από τα επόμενα τεύχη του Λάιφ, το 1947.